A FAST START FOR SHORT STORY OR NOVEL
In THE ART OF THE NOVEL, 1934, Henry James said that there are no rules for fiction, that the only requirement is that it be interesting. This is true. However, rather than spending years in determining what is, in fact, interesting, a writer can benefit by understanding and practicing a few basics that have been derived through the study of traditional fiction.
THE FIRST PAGE—The DNA (GENETIC CODE) of the story
The first page is the contract between writer and reader. This is where you create your own rules—whether you realize it or not. If you do not, you are likely to break your rules and cause the reader discomfort because of the inconsistency. On page one—even in sentence one to some extent—the writer creates a pattern he or she must follow to the end of the story or novel. The "DNA” in fiction, as named by James W. Hall, includes the basics necessary to get the story started and indicates the style, tone, and usually the relative proportions of summary, scene, dialogue, and description.
I. Characters—at least two of them:
The story isn't started until there is a conflict to be carried out. A conflict is generally between two people because this is the most interesting. An internal conflict may be present at the same time within the protagonist, but a character entertaining conflicting thoughts alone in a room or on a train is usually not very interesting.
A.. Protagonist with a Need and Goal (usually the narrator):
The reader will be pulling for this character to fulfill his/her deepest psychological desire through the attainment of a concrete goal. He or she need not be all sugar and spice—even murderers can be protagonists—but must be portrayed with specific detail and sensitivity to create interest and sympathy. The character is not usually aware of his or her need, but the writer and the reader should become aware within the first page for best results. The concrete goal may come within the first few pages. The protagonist will grow and change throughout the story, so that the character is different in some way or knows more at the end of the story or novel than at the beginning.
The reader should immediately know the sex, approximate age, and usually, the name of the protagonist. Don't hold back important information that would allow the reader to become emotionally involved.
B. Antagonist—A Character of Opposing Force:
This character and/or allies must give the protagonist a tough "fight." If the opposition is lacking in power, the outcome is too obvious, and the reader loses interest.
The background enables the reader to visualize the characters concretely. Voices arising out of white space are unsettling to the reader, so usually a sentence or more of atmosphere to set characters on the scene precedes dialogue and action.
Place may include geographic, exterior, and/or interior setting. How much is needed depends on the story. No "filler" allowed; there is no extra room in a short story, especially on the first page.
Time can refer to year, season, time of day, exact hour and minutes, whatever is needed. Time must be "kept" throughout the story.
III. Verb Tense:
The controlling verb tense must be chosen immediately. Most stories are written in past tense as is logical; however, present tense has become popular and affords a degree of closeness and immediacy that works well under certain conditions. More attention is usually required in order to stay consistent in present tense, because past tense comes to mind more naturally when writing a story.
IV. Point of View:
A consistent point of view should be established in the first few paragraphs and maintained throughout the story. The general types of point of view are first person, third-person-attached or central consciousness, and omniscient. Second person can be used on rare occasions, but often gets tiresome in long works. Briefly, first person is limited to the conscious perceptions and feelings of the "I" narrator, usually the protagonist. Third-person-attached is generally limited to the conscious and unconscious perceptions and feelings of the "he" or "she" protagonist, but may include some omniscience, if it is established early. (You can create your own rules, as long as you stick to them.) A totally omniscient POV from the author, a godlike narrator, or many narrators is generally uncontrolled and unfocused in the hands of a beginner. In a short story, one point of view is highly advised, because there is only one character who develops and changes, and if other characters have points of view, the reader cannot tell who is important. In a novel, there can be several characters who take turns being the point of view character in third person, usually separated in chapters. This is sometimes referred to as omniscient, but it is more accurately called shifting third person. Point of view is usually the most difficult concept for a beginner to master.
V. Dialogue and Scene:
These elements are not always found on the first page, but are highly recommended. Dialogue and scene should contain conflict which builds or reflects the plot in some way, so if good dialogue is included in the first page, the story takes off instantly. Be sure to indent each time you have a new speaker. If a character says something and then performs an action consecutively, the words and actions usually go into one paragraph. Use he said, she said, or I said in most cases if there is any question as to who is speaking. These are called dialogue tags, and they are mostly unnoticed by the reader. Do not draw attention to your tags by varying them. Whispered and shouted are good choices because unlike responded or answered, they show real differences in the manner of speech.
VI. Tone and Style—Elements of Voice
The combination of language, syntax, rhythm, etc. involved in the creation of voice, cannot be defined in this space. Expect to spend years of your life pursuing this knowledge, unless you are one of the lucky people for whom an individual voice comes naturally. In the meantime, suit your language to your character, from the first sentence on. Don't write like an English teacher unless your character is one.